In December 2004, the Aceh region and the west coast of Sumatra Island were hit by tsunami, which claimed up to 200,000 lives. A few months later, the island of Nias was hit by an earthquake. And, about a year later, it was Java's turn to experience an earthquake and tsunami, which claimed up to 6,000 lives. In 2010, Mount Merapi erupted, destroying homes and neighborhoods that have not fully recovered from the previous disasters.
Nusantara Archipelago has geographical conditions and characteristics that make it vulnerable to natural disasters; such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods and so on. Data from the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) state that, between 2005-2015, there were averages of 1,545 natural disasters--big and small--every year in all parts of Indonesia. The disasters have killed people, destroyed people's lives, and damaged development outcomes.
The Indonesian government--at the national and local levels--should be prepared for disaster; including the preparedness of funds, personnel, and also information systems to the best post-disaster knowledge management system derived from previous experiences. The Government of Indonesia opens itself to various forms of participation and cooperation in handling disasters occurring now or in the future.
Tsunami events in Aceh and Nias also have positive effects. The Government of Indonesia has succeeded in establishing a good approach and becoming an international reference in addressing the impact of disasters. For example, the Government established the Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) to coordinate the support of state and international agencies for the reconstruction and rehabilitation process in Aceh and Nias, which managed funds up to $ 655 million, with World Bank support as trustee.
In 2006, holding on to the MDF experience, the Government established the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) for the disaster reconstruction process in Java. And, in anticipation of another possible disaster in the future, in 2009 the Indonesia Multi Donor Fund Facility for Disaster Recovery (IMDFF-DR) was established.
IMDFF-DR is a funding mechanism aimed at mobilizing funds and coordinating international assistance in order to support and complement the Government's efforts in disaster management. IMDFF-DR plays a role in overcoming the Government's budget shortfall. In addition, the institute serves as a catalyst to improve the quality of disaster management on an ongoing basis, utilizing networking and expertise, as well as the experience of international partners.
The organizational structure of IMDFF-DR consists of Steering Committee, Technical Committee, Admnistrative Agent and Trustee. Steering Committee and Technical Team assisted by Secretariat of IMDFF-DR Coordination Team established by Decree of Secretary of Minister of PPN / Bappenas.
IMDFF-DR operates under a two-window system, each managed by the World Bank as trustee and UNDP representing the UN as an administrative agent. The IMDFF-DR fund allocation policy is set by the Steering Committee based on the needs and proposals of the implementing candidate, and the availability of funds received from the donor country or institution.
Institutions that may propose activities are Ministries or Agencies, as well as United Nations agencies that partner with relevant government agencies. The affected Local Government is involved in providing input for recovery support needs. Meanwhile, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) may act as implementing partners in accordance with applicable regulations.
The scope and types of activities that can be implemented with IMDFF-DR funding are:
- Implementation of early recovery activities in public and social infrastructure such as roads, bridges, irrigation, ports, urban infrastructure, schools and hospitals.
- Implementation of rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the areas of:
- Rebuilding public and social infrastructure such as roads, bridges, irrigation, ports, urban and rural infrastructure, schools and hospitals.
- Efforts to restore community life (productive economic sector) include capital for farmers.
- Rebuilding housing;
- Technical assistance and capacity building activities (capacity building);
- Implementation of DaLA, PDNA and drafting of the action in case of another disaster.
Activities that can be implemented are in the forms of:
- Project investment and technical assistance including new-stand alone projects, co-financing of new projects, funding disaster risk reduction, additional funding for new components in ongoing projects.
- Expansion of projects or activities that are being carried out (scale-up) by implementing partners both in terms of coverage area, scope of activities, population coverage and other expansion forms.
- Support for government programs that are part of post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts.
the end of 2009, within one year IMDFF-DR has completed institutional
preparation as well as SOP for its working mechanism. In 2011, the New Zealand
Government entrusted NZD 4 millionaid to be managed through the mechanism.The fund was primarily intended for the handling of the earthquake in Mentawai
Island, West Sumatra.
In 2012, various disaster management activities were carried out, both in Mentawai and Merapi. That year, the New Zealand Government added its disaster fundby NZD 2.5 million.
In 2013, there was a review of IMDFF-DR role and the result was a transformation process. The role and scope of IMDFF-DR activities was expanded and became more flexible. IMDFF-DR SOP was updated.
In 2014, IMDFF-DR officially changed to IDF (Indonesia Disaster Fund). That year, the Government of New Zealand backed to add aid funds, this time amounting to NZD 4.1 million. In December 2014, recovery support in Mentawai and Merapi ended. Meanwhile, the signing of the Joint ProgramDocument for the handling of Mount Sinabung and Mount Kelud eruption. In 2015, the program implemented United Nation Join Program (UNJP) on Mount Kelud and Mount Sinabung.
In 2016, a General Agreement was signed for the replicationof the Community-Based Reconstruction and Community-Based Settlement Rehabilitation project (named REKOMPAK). The pilot project has been done by the Ministry of Public Works in 2005, when handling post-tsunami rehabilitation in Aceh and Nias. Through a community-based approach and relying on community self-reliance, the program was able to build 300 houses in just about 14 months.
In 2016, UNJP on Mount Kelud and Mount Sinabung was completed. Meanwhile, through the UN windows, the REKOMPAK replication activity started in Sinabung.
Contributions from donor countries or agencies to the Government of Indonesia to assist disaster management through IMDFF-DR is carried out by the following mechanism:
- The donor country / institution submits the information through an official letter to the IMDFF-DR Steering Committee Chairperson through the Secretariat on grant funding plan to the Government of Indonesia in order to support disaster management whose funds will be channeled through IMDFF-DR
- Grant funding commitments may be funds that have been specifically allocated to finance an earmarked activity in accordance with the IMDFF-DR MoU or un-earmarked funds in accordance with the needs and decisions of the IMDFF-DR Steering Committee.
- After obtaining approval from the Steering Committee, the signing of the grant agreement is in accordance with the applicable mechanism. The donor then signs the agreement with the administration agent or trustee according to the window used.
- The budget year under which IMDFF-DR is implemented is January-December. If there is a difference between the government budget year and the donor, the specific arrangements relating to commitments and disbursements are set out in the FAA.
In 2011, the Government of New Zealand committed a disaster funding assistance with a total value of NZD 10.6 million or equivalent to USD 8.5 million. Disbursement of aid was done in three stages; namely Phase 1 in June 2011, Phase 2 in June 2012, and Phase 3 in June 2014.
Utilization of funds was done either through the UN window or World Bank window. UN window channeled funds amounting to NZD 6 million or equivalent USD 4.8 million. Meanwhile, the World Bank's window provided aid worth NZD 4.6 million or equivalent to USD 3.7 million. The funds were used for various disaster management activities; namely the earthquake in Mentawai (2011), Mount Merapi eruption (2012), Mount Kelud eruption (2014), and Mount Sinabung eruption (2014).